Yi Huan;Rehman Fawad Ur;Zhao Chunqiu;Liu Bin;He Nongyue
[Yi Huan; Zhao Chunqiu; He Nongyue; Rehman Fawad Ur] Southeast Univ, Sch Biol Sci & Med Engn, State Key Lab Bioelect, Chien Shiung Wu Lab, Nanjing, Jiangsu, Peoples R China.;[He Nongyue] Hunan Univ Technol, Hunan Key Lab Green Chem & Applicat Biol Nanotech, Zhuzhou, Peoples R China.;[Liu Bin] Nanjing Med Univ, Sch Basic Med Sci, Dept Biomed Engn, Nanjing, Jiangsu, Peoples R China.
[He, NY] Hunan Univ Technol, Hunan Key Lab Green Chem & Applicat Biol Nanotech, Zhuzhou, Peoples R China.;Southeast Univ, Sch Biol Sci & Med Engn, State Key Lab Bioelect, Chien Shiung Wu Lab, Nanjing, Jiangsu, Peoples R China.
Biomedical applications of nanomaterials are exponentially increasing every year due to analogy to various cell receptors, ligands, structural proteins, and genetic materials (that is, DNA). In bone tissue, nanoscale materials can provide scaffold for excellent tissue repair via mechanical stimulation, releasing of various loaded drugs and mediators, 3D scaffold for cell growth and differentiation of bone marrow stem cells to osteocytes. This review will therefore highlight recent advancements on tissue and nanoscale materials interaction.
Tissue engineering has become a promising strategy for repairing damaged cartilage and bone tissue. Among the scaffolds for tissue-engineering applications, injectable hydrogels have demonstrated great potential for use as three-dimensional cell culture scaffolds in cartilage and bone tissue engineering, owing to their high water content, similarity to the natural extracellular matrix (ECM), porous framework for cell transplantation and proliferation, minimal invasive properties, and ability to match irregular defects. In this review, we describe the selection of appropriate biomaterials and fabrication methods to prepare novel injectable hydrogels for cartilage and bone tissue engineering. In addition, the biology of cartilage and the bony ECM is also summarized. Finally, future perspectives for injectable hydrogels in cartilage and bone tissue engineering are discussed.